Solutions Technology provides a full engineering design
service through the phases of formulation, development and execution of a
project. The design scope of any project is divided into the following
distinct design phases, these being the:
- Detail design phase
Conceptual Design Phase
At the conceptual design phase of a project, the following methodology is adhered to:
- The company's engineers work closely with the client's project
personnel to develop an optimal process scheme and a well-defined design basis.
- All design bases, relevant engineering information and the chemical and
physical data of the component streams, are acquired.
- The material and energy balances are calculated and the process flow diagrams
(PFD's) are developed. (The PFD's incorporate fairly detailed operating conditions,
includingfeed and product compositions, pipeline flow rates, temperatures and
pressures for each processing step.)
- Preliminary process simulations are performed where required using the ASPEN
- Where necessary, laboratory and pilot plant studies are performed to validate
and/or test the process options and to make sure that valid physical property
and thermodynamic data is being used.
Process Design Phase
During the process design phase of the project, the design procedure is
implemented as follows:
Usually a basic engineering design package is produced at the completion of this phase
of the design work.
- From the PFD's, definitive piping and instrumentation diagrams
(P&ID's) are developed and compiled. The P&ID's will usually incorporate
information and pipeline sizing criteria based on normal “steady state” operating
conditions, but also the requirements imposed during the start-up and shut-down
phases of operation.
- A full set of process specifications is compiled for all tagged equipment
- The process is subjected to a rigorous HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) study,
with a formal report being issued upon the completion of the study.
- Complete equipment registers are drawn up based on the approved P&ID's.
Separate registers are compiled for similar items of equipment.
Detail Design Phase
The execution of the detail design phase of a project, proceeds in accordance
with the following practice:
Information such as the position of underground drains, electrical trenches, ducts, civil
loadings etc. are incorporated into these drawings.
- Detail design specifications are developed for all equipment,
piping, instrumentation and electrical items.
- Detail dimensional information is incorporated into a 3-dimensional (3-D) CAD
model of the proposed plant. Concurrently with the development of the 3-D CAD
model, all equipment and piping layouts are optimised.
- To ensure the complete integration of all engineering disciplines into a
project, relevant information relating to each of the following engineering
disciplines is draughted into the 3-D model format:
- structural steel
At the model review meetings, the detailed “material take off” schedules and piping
interference reports can be reviewed. When on site, Solutions Technology's engineers
make extensive use of the “virtual reality” walk through to clarify complex interface
areas. This visualisation tool can also be used on site to assist with the resolution
of complex problems without the automatic need to refer back to the draughting office
on each occasion. This capability greatly adds to the clarity of the erection and
installation work and saves valuable construction time. The 3-D model can also be
utilised for rigging studies, equipment erection and piping installation planning.
- Once the relevant information from each of these disciplines has been incorporated
into generating the final plant model, the model is translated electronically both
into plan, elevation and sectional elevation drawings as well as being reduced into
isometric projection views of the plant. These projected views form part of each
subsequent work pack that is utilised during the construction phase of the
- The following information from the central database is electronically accessed
and used during the draughting of the 3-D plant and piping models:
- line size
- line specification
- line number
- valve & fitting numbers
- valve & fitting sizes
- When the 3-D plant model has been sufficiently completed, the
client is requested to undertake a “virtual reality” or “interactive” 3-D walk
through the entire plant.
- During these “virtual reality” sessions, attention is paid specifically to
plant operability, maintenance access and relevant safety requirements.
(The clients' operating and maintenance staff can deliver their input at this
early stage thus avoiding any necessity for costly site rework later
in the project.)
- The client is thus given a detailed view of what the plant will look like
upon its completion. All layout alterations must be completed before construction
of that section of the plant commences.
The active intelligence of the company's engineering system, ensures that:
- The 3-D CAD model incorporates the structural steel and civil
design features of the plant.
- The CAD draughting package automatically generates a cross check between the
P&ID and the 3-D piping model thus ensuring that no equipment is referenced in the
one and not in the other.
- Changes and/or additions that become necessary (such as low point drains, extra
valves etc.), and which usually only become apparent during the actual layout of the
plant, are flagged and the central database ensures that these changes are
incorporated into the P&ID's.
- The central database forms the basis for both the work pack and the tracking
system.During all subsequent phases of the project, these instruments are integrated
into the other project management functions.
- Detailed “bill of materials” schedules are generated automatically by the
engineering system. These schedules can then be issued to the relevant contractors,
together with the applicable construction drawings and the necessary requisitions
required for each work pack.
Copyright Solutions-Tech (Pty) Ltd 2004
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